A wide and diversified range of extracurricular activities exists on U. S. campuses, meeting a variety of student interests. Extracurricular activities play an essential role in education, but their importance is often neglected. The primary role of the Division is to provide a good space for the development of student clubs and associations. In the operation of associations, students may acquire knowledge and skills beyond their coursework, including communication, self-growth as well as leadership management.
Academics are an important part of each student’s high school years, especially since high school rades play an integral role in college acceptance. Parents spend a lot of time encouraging their teens to study more and play less in the pursuit of this goal. They believe that devoting a great deal of time to studying guarantees success in future college applications. However, there is another more playful component of a well-rounded education outside the regular academic program that may positively impact students’ success.
Extracurricular activities, such as basketball, baseball, tennis, debating, chess clubs, student government, yearbook, drama, choir and computer clubs can round out students’ academic careers to great effect. Besides being fun and a great way to socialize with peers, extracurricular activities can enhance students’ time management and stress management skills, improving overall productivity. Extracurricular activities also increase a candidate’s appeal when applying to college. “Studies show that students in extracurricular activities have higher scores.
They learn to manage their time, relieve stress and learn to strive for excellence in more than one thing,” says Kenny Smith, a school counselor in Thatcher, Arizona. “Students who are involved in team sports learn to work in groups. Their written and oral communication skills improve. These things cross over into ‘real life. ‘ The students who participate in extracurricular activities are held to a higher plane. There are no team breaks. The privilege must meet specific requirements. “Participation in extracurricular activities is a privilege and students may have to meet and maintain a minimum grade point average to play sports or take part in clubs. ” So says Parent Spot, produced by the Capital Region BOCES Community Service in Albany, N. Y. Some extracurricular programs are designed to help at-risk teens. One program, Students Keeping Attitudes Towards Earnlng Rewards ana success ( -J, In Moreno valley, callTornla, Involves tutoring, academics, running a food pantry, and participating in service learning activities. To make it easier for students to participate, the group meets at lunchtime rather than after school.
Having started with 20 at-risk students, there are now as many as 500 participants per year. Faye Arco is the counselor who started the SKATERS program. She says, “Participation in extracurricular and school club activities increases resiliency in youth by promoting protective factors and reducing risk factors. Data shows that participants have a higher GPA (0. 98 percent), fewer suspensions (13. 9 percent), and better attendance (15. 8 percent) than non- participants. Counselors come from as far away as New Zealand and Poland to observe the program, which has now been implemented in many schools. Adding extracurricular activities to an already rigorous high school schedule can be tricky. There may be times when academic requirements, family life and social activities conflict. “For example, kids who participate in tennis must prioritize how they use their time,” says Smith. He tells the story of one student who had a conflict between n algebra class and a tennis match. Being proactive, she worked out a way to attend the match and still keep up with her algebra class lectures. Despite the time and effort involved in extracurricular activities, there are clear rewards in the form of fun and enhanced life skills.
But there’s also the fact that college admission officers are generally impressed by a student’s extracurricular activities. Parent Spot notes, “College admissions officers are looking for students who have applied themselves academically during the high school years and have used their free time in enriching ays… A roster of extracurricular activities lets colleges know that teens have made a meaningful contribution to something larger than themselves, can maintain long- term commitments and can Juggle their priorities successfully. How do colleges view the extracurricular activities chosen by a high school student? The activities offer colleges a snapshot of a student’s personality and interests. Parent Spot notes, “The activities that teens choose to take part in outside of the classroom tell prospective schools much more than grades on paper. ” Overall, students who articipate in extracurricular activities will likely see an improvement in their academic and life skills, including discipline, goal-setting, teamwork, accountability and responsibility. They will also find themselves better prepared for post-secondary education.
Ultimately, students may even discover that the lessons they learned outside the classroom, in basketball or chess club, help them cope with future challenges in the workplace. A. Rationale The Importance of Extra-curricular Activities in educational institutions All work and no play make Jack a dull boy, reads the proverb which carries a lot of eight age. Hence in educational institutions also children must not be a part of only the academic world but must be encouraged to participate in extra-curricular activities. It might happen that some children might not be good in academics but has a lot of potential in other activities.
So it is the responsibility of every educational institution to encourage children to marshal their skills by allowing them to partlclpate In tne extra-curricular actlvltles tnat tney are good In All work ana no play make Jack a dull boy, reads the proverb which carries a lot of weight age. Hence in ducational institutions also children must not be a part of only the academic world but must be encouraged to participate in extra-curricular activities. It might happen that some children might not be good in academics but has a lot of potential in other activities.
So it is the responsibility of every educational institution to encourage children to marshal their skills by allowing them to participate in the extra-curricular activities that they are good in. Extra-curricular activities must be made a mandatory part of the curriculum as it enhances the all round development in a child. A child’s growth depends upon many factors and one such factor is his participation in co- curricular activities. Schools must have these activities in order to promote healthy learning on the school premises and for each child to understand and know his strong points.
Extra- curricular activities can be divided under different banners such as Literary, Sports, Creative, Science and Field Trips. Under the Literary Banner, activities like Elocution, Drama, Extempore, Declamation, Creative Writing, Spell bee, Quizzes can be organized and children who have a good command over the language r has the flair to write, are updated with the current affairs can be motivated to participate in these literary co- curricular activities. Children who are good sportsmen can take part in various sports activities organized by the school.
A school may organize a football competition and may invite other schools to participate in the competition. This provides a lot of scope for the children to show their sportsman spirit and give their best to win the game and make their school proud. Moreover such participation creates a healthy atmosphere among children and they get to now each other well. Extra-curricular activities under the Creative banner may include pottery making, puppetry, learning how to play a musical instrument, displaying skills in dance and singing and many such activities that highlight the hidden talents of a learner.
Similarly children can be also encouraged to participate in interesting activities related to Science. They might be asked to organize a Science Exhibition that may bring out the interest and the enthusiasm of each child in setting up the exhibition. These activities might allow the child to take more interest in his essons and might give him a chance to go ahead with some sort of useful research that will help him to come across something new. Children can also apply the gained knowledge in working out other things. All students may not be good in academics.
Hence in order to guide them to display the talents in the field that they are good in, educational institutions must have this platform called Extra-curricular activity. Every child is unique and born with a talent, so what other way can be the best than to showcase it through this platform called Extra-curricular Activity. B. Statement of the Problem Title: The Correlation of Extra-curricular Activities on the Academic Performance of NORSU-CASED Students 1 . Is there any significance of extra-curricular activities in the academic performance of the students? 2.
To determine the benefits of extra- curricular activities to class participation of the students. 3. To determine the characteristics that will be developed when students engage to activities specifically : a sports/aance b) Music 4. To determine how extra-curricular activities enhance school engagement affect the lives of the students . C. Scope and Limitation The D. Significance of the Study The importance of extracurricular activities on college campuses is well established. The primary goals of extracurricular activities focus on the individual student level, the institutional level, and the broader community level.
These activities exist to complement the university’s academic curriculum and to augment the student’s educational experience. According to a 1993 article by Alexander Astin, almost any type of student involvement in college positively affects student learning and development. Extracurricular activities provide a setting to become involved and to nteract with other students, thus leading to increased learning and enhanced development. Specifically, a student’s peer group is the most important source of influence on a student’s academic and personal development.
By identifying with a peer group, that group may influence a student’s affective and cognitive development as well as his or her behavior. As the development of the well-rounded individual is a principal goal of extracurricular activities on college and university campuses, the numerous experiences these activities afford positively impact students’ emotional, intellectual, social, and inter-personal development. By working together with other individuals, students learn to negotiate, communicate, manage conflict, and lead others.
Taking part in these out-of-the-classroom activities helps students to understand the importance of critical thinking skills, time management, and academic and intellectual competence. Involvement in activities helps students mature socially by providing a setting for student interaction, relationship formation, and discussion. Working outside of the classroom with diverse groups of individuals allows for students to gain more self-confidence, autonomy, and appreciation for thers’ differences and similarities.
Students also develop skills specific to their career path and imperative for future Job success. Students have opportunities to improve their leadership and interpersonal skills while also increasing their self- confidence. Extracurricular involvement allows students to link academic knowledge with practical experience, thereby leading to a better understanding of their own abilities, talents, and career goals. Future employers seek individuals with these increased skill levels, making these involved students more viable in the Job market.
Specifically, participation in extracurricular activities and leadership roles in these activities are positively linked to attainment of one’s first Job and to managerial potential. Student involvement in extracurricular activities also positively impacts educational attainment. Ernest T. Pascarella and Patrick T. Terenzini’s 1991 research indicates that extracurricular involvement has a positive impact on attaining a bachelor’s degree and on educational aspirations. Students who are actively engaged are more likely to nave nlgner eaucatlonal amDltlons tnan unlnvolvea students
Finally, extracurricular activities focus on institutional goals, such as building and sustaining community on campus as well as student retention. As campuses become more diverse, students desire an environment in which they feel connected to others and to the university. Extracurricular activities provide a place for students to come together, discuss pertinent ideas and issues, and accomplish common goals. Within this community, where students feel comfortable with one another, learning and development are enhanced and student retention is positively impacted.
According o Vincent Tinto’s 1987 research, students will be more likely to persist in college if they feel they have had rewarding encounters with a college’s social and academic systems. Through extracurricular participation, students frequently interact with peers who have similar interests, providing social integration into the college environment. As a result, involved students view their college years as a positive experience and feel they are a vital part of the university, resulting in higher retention rates.
Types of Extracurricular Activities Because of the diverse interests of college students, the range of extracurricular ctivity offerings varies extensively, depending upon the size and type of college or university. Extracurricular activities range from primarily social organizations to governance organizations to intercollegiate athletic programs. Each activity offers students an opportunity to work with others and to gain essential life skills. Though numerous extracurricular activities exist, the following activities are those that are most commonly found on college campuses.
Student Government. One of the most widespread types of extracurricular experience available on college campuses is student government. Students involved in governance organizations, such as student government and residence hall government, are typically elected by their peers to function as the “official voice” of students to university administration. These government participants often serve on campus-wide committees in an effort to represent the ideas and concerns of their fellow students.
Student government functions include allocating funds to other organizations, planning programs related to student interests, providing forums for student issue discussion, and helping to build and sustain a successful campus community. Additional examples of campus overnance organizations include honor councils, which seek to enforce a university’s honor code, and Judiciary boards, where students hear disciplinary cases and render verdicts The Importance of Extracurricular Activities Excellence in life calls for myriad skills of which academic performance is Just one.
Besides formal education to learn reading, writing and arithmetic, students need to learn various other skills such as critical and creative thinking, problem solving and decision making; to succeed in any field it is also important to imbibe interpersonal relationship and communication skills. Students attain all these objectives when they partlclpate In extracurricular actlvltles; Des10es, tnese skills also pave tne way Tor academic accomplishments and a successful career.
Skills Extracurricular activities teach students various skills outside of academic disciplines they are pursuing. Learning to sing, play an instrument, paint, act or play a sport helps students not Just to hone their talents, but also to develop other related skills. Chess, for example, improves strategic and critical thinking; painting or music provide opportunities for creative thinking. Students who need to fit these activities nto their daily routine become better at organizing and managing their time efficiently.
Working part-time Jobs, for pay or as a volunteer, is useful to help students identify their areas of interest to decide on a future career. Character Building Students who take up extracurricular activities have a greater opportunity to develop their personality. Sticking to a routine, attending classes and participating in drills and practice sessions all call for discipline. Students who volunteer for community or religious service organizations learn to shoulder responsibility, communicate with eers, work as a team and organize events.
The pride of accomplishing a set task helps them develop self-confidence and improves self-esteem. Volunteering at a charity organization that deals with the disabled, elderly or children with special needs helps students develop empathy and compassion. Behavior Modification Extracurricular activities serve to channel the vigor of young minds in the right direction. Students who participate in such activities have no time or opportunity for boredom; such children are therefore less likely to indulge in deviant activities such as school violence and drug, tobacco or alcohol abuse.
Besides, many schools also have policies that bar students with behavioral violations from participating in extracurricular activities; this serves as a powerful deterrent to anti-social behavior. Students involved with a sports team or volunteer group face a constructive peer pressure that keeps them away from destructive behavior. Higher Education Of all the benefits a student gains from extracurricular activities, the most tangible one is the influence on college admissions. Institutions providing specialized higher education look for a depth of personality that is indicated by participation in such ctivities.
For example, volunteer work you have done with learning disabled children will work in your favor when applying to a degree program in psychology, social work or medicine. Active involvement with community activities, a sport or an art form is evidence of commitment to a cause. Colleges look for such traits when deciding which students to admit. E. Definition of Term II. Theritical Foundation and Review of Related Literature Theoritical Background Involvement Theory A central TrameworK, crltlcal to unaerstan01ng consumer aeclslon-maKlng Denavlour and associated communications, is involvement theory.
Purchase decisions made by consumers vary considerably, and one of the factors thought to be key to brand choice decisions is the level of involvement (in terms of importance and relevance) a consumer has with either the product or the purchase process. The term ‘involvement’ has become an important concept in the consumer behaviour literature. The concept has its roots in social psychology, but its current form and interpretation by researchers is both interesting and revealing. There is no consensus on a definition of involvement.
Kapferer and Laurent (1985) argue that involvement has five different facets. These are interest, risk importance, risk probability, sign value and hedonic value. Their approach tends to be all-consuming, whereas Ratchford (1987), quoting Zaichkowsky (1985) and others, does not perceive involvement as such a broad matter. Many researchers do not recognise the importance of hedonic and sign value elements in this context. To some, involvement is about the ego, perceived risk and purchase importance – a cognitive perspective.
To those who favour a behavioural perspective, the search for and evaluation of product-orientated information is pertinent (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1991). A general interpretation is that involvement is about the level of personal care and level of uncertainty an individual experiences when making purchasing decisions. There are three levels of involvement, high, low and no involvement. This study examined the relationship between extracurricular involvement and leadership outcomes among traditional-age college seniors in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University.
We collected data related to quantitative (i. e. , how much time a student spends on an activity) and qualitative (i. e. how focused the student is on the activity) aspects of involvement in extracurricular organizations. We measured leadership, as an outcome, using the individual values scale of the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS-R2). The number of clubs in which a student participated and served as an officer was associated with higher leadership scores. We identified a threshold of involvement that suggests the optimum number of clubs or organizations to be actively involved in is three to four.
Introduction A new generation of leaders is needed to address the changing issues facing local ommunities, build local partnerships, and assume leadership positions (Ewing, Bruce, & Ricketts, 2009). To meet this need, many institutions of higher education have included leadership development in their mission statements (Astin & Astin, 2000; Boatman, 1999) and implemented curricular experiences, classroom experiences, and out-of-classroom experiences to meet leadership outcomes.
Astin (1999) suggests the concept of student involvement as a pedagogical theory to examine the student experience and learn more about how educational programs and policies are related to student achievement and development. Journal of Leadership Education Volume 12, Issue 2 – Summer 2013 57 Researchers and practitioners use involvement theory (Astin, 1999) as a theoretical framework for student involvement, including classroom, out-of-classroom, and curricular activities.
Astin (1996) defined involvement as an investment of physical and psychological energy that occurs along a continuum and has both quantitative (e. g. , time spent) and qualitative (e. g. , amount of focus or depth) features. Astin aescrlDea an Involved student as one wno “‘devotes conslaeraDle energy to stuaylng, pends much time on campus, participates actively in student organizations, and interacts frequently with faculty members and other students” (p. 518).
Astin’s theoretical framework helps explain empirical knowledge about environmental influences on student development from a variety of psychosocial and learning pedagogies. Research supports Astin’s (1999) involvement theory. Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) found that the frequency and quality of students’ participation in activities was associated with high educational aspirations, enhanced self-confidence, and increased interpersonal and leadership skills.
Rubin, Bommer, and Baldwin (2002) concluded that an extracurricular index score that represents the number of clubs in which students were involved, officer status, and hours spent significantly predicted interpersonal skills such as communication, initiative, decision making, and teamwork. However, a gap in the literature exists between operationalization of involvement theory and research design. Review of Realted Literature Music and sport activities are positive for all children’s wellbeing.
Children who are involved in sports get higher school grades, have an increased sense of self-worth, nd are more likely to complete high school than children who are not involved in sport. Children involved in sports are also generally healthier due to their increased activity, and have stronger social networks than children who do not participate in sport. Children involved in music activities (such as learning a musical instrument) are often better adjusted, with increased academic performance, ability to think creatively, emotional understanding, and emotional expression.
Children involved in music typically have better memory skills than those who are not musically trained. The Relationship Between Athletics and Academic Performance The impact that athletics has on academic performance has been debated over the years??”some say the impact is positive, while others say it is negative. “Early analysis of the effect of participation in sports on academic achievement produced inconsistent evidence” (Broh, 2002, Para. 3).
Even today, there is inconsistent evidence, but most research tends to lean toward the idea that participation in athletics does, in fact, improve academic performance. The result of one particular study indicated that “with the exception of a few subgroups and outcomes, participation in sports is generally unrelated to educational achievement. Additional information from this study has “found that playing sports in high school has no significant effect on grades or standardized test scores in the general student population” (Broh, 2002, Para. ). Although this particular study produced a negative relationship between sports and academic performance, many demonstrate a positive relationship. Broh (2002) believes that “participation in interscholastic sports promotes students’ development and social ties among students, parents, and schools, and these benefits explain the positive effect of participation on achievement” (Para. 1). Longitudinal studies on school sports have suggested that such participation raises students’ grades and test scores” (Broh, 2002, Para. 2).
Stephens and Schaben performed a study looking at the number of sports each student played ana Its affect on acaaemlc perTormance. I ney noticea tnat students who participate in at least one sport each year outperformed those who participated in one or less, in class rank, overall GPA, and math GPA (Stephens & Schaben, 2002, Para. 6). They also noticed that the students who participated in more sports for many seasons had a “higher level of scholarship than the who had ompeted in only a few seasons or for only one year” (Stephens & Schaben, 2002, Para. ). Some research indicates that physical activity not only improves academic performance, but has an actual physical benefit for the mind. Shepard (1996) said, “Regular physical activity might influence cognitive development by increasing cerebral blood flow, altering arousal and associate neruohormonal balance, changing nutritional status, or promoting the growth of interneuronal connections” (Para. 12). Compared to other extracurricular activities, however, athletics does not appear to produce as strong a positive correlation. Darling et al. 2005) found that students who did not participate in any extracurricular activities showed the poorest adjustment as far as grades, attitude toward school, and academic aspirations, while non-sport extracurricular activities showed the most positive adjustment, with sports related extracurricular activities in the middle (Para. 40). Guest and Schneider (2003) reported similar results, saying, “In all schools, participation in non-sports extracurricular activities has a stronger association with being seen as a good student than does participation in sports” (Para. 6). The question that some esearchers struggled with, however, is whether or not their research explains a cause-effect relationship. Studies report that it is not necessarily the participation in sports which is responsible for producing better grades, but it could be that “good” students are participating in sports. “More recent studies have indicated that there is a large selection bias of higher-achieving, “good” students into participation in extracurricular activities, including sports” (Broh, 2002, Para. 3).
Guest and Schneider (2003) found that “in higher-class communities, where a relatively large proportion of tudents go to college, non-sports extracurricular activities are likely to be seen as providing a foundation for further education and professional success” (Para. 13). The Relationship Between Participation in Music and Academic Performance Studies reflect a strong positive relationship between participation in music and academic performance. Ponter (1999) suggested that “music should be considered as fundamental to the curriculum as mathematics and reading” (Para. ). Eady (2004) holds a similar view, believing that “music can influence learning in core subjects as well as contribute to the attainment of core goals in learning” (Para. ). This gives the impression that music plays an important role in academic performance. One study, which evaluated the effects that musical performance has on children’s academic performance and thinking abilities, showed that “instrumental music training uniquely enhances the higher brain functions required for mathematics, science, and engineering” (Ponter, 1999, Para. 3). Milley conducted a case study on students involved in band and orchestra. He found that “concert band and orchestra members scored significantly higher than non-music students on SRA (Science Research Associates) language, math, and composite score; that their GPAs were significantly higher than non-music students; and that they had significantly fewer days absent. ” I nls case study concluaea tnat “muslc students reacn nlgner acaaemlc acnlevement levels in academic studies than non-music students” (Kelstrom, 1998, Para. 6). Music continues to impact academic performance throughout a student’s educational career. Studies have been conducted on this relationship in students as young as preschool through college-aged students. In all age groups studied, music was proven to have a good impact on academic performance. The College Entrance Examination Board reported that high school students who had had some experience with music performance or music appreciation scored higher on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT).
The students who had a background in music scored between 51 to 61 points higher on the verbal section and 39 to 46 points higher on the math section than the students with no music background (Ponter, 1999, Para. 25). The College Board, who is responsible for administering the Scholastic Aptitude Test conducted studies, which indicated that “music/art students consistently scored ignificantly higher on both the math and verbal sections of the SAT” (Kelstrom, 1998, Para. 1).
Confirming the belief that the relationship between music and academic performance is positive, “researchers have found that music instruction actually enhances student achievement in areas outside music” (Kelstrom, 1998, Para. 12). It is believed that “music develops critical thinking skills and improves skills in reading, writing, and math. Music develops and improves spatial intelligence, which transfers to high-level math and science. It develops perceptual skills necessary in many academic areas” (Kelstrom, 1998, Para. 31-32).
According to this study, music has a strong influence, because it produces and develops skills needed for many academic processes. Journal of Leadership Education Volume 12, Issue 2 – Summer 2013 56 Using Involvement Theory to Examine the Relationship between Undergraduate Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Leadership Development Elizabeth A. Foreman, Ph. D. Program Coordinator College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Iowa State University 20 Curtiss Hall Ames, IA 50011 51 5-294-4548 [email protected] edu Michael S. Retallick, Ph. D. Associate Professor Department of Agricultural Education 206 curass Hall 515-294-4810