Like the musical genres of he Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa (sky-blue and dark green region on map its music has close ties with Middle Eastern music and utilizes similar melodic modes (macadam). North African music has a considerable range, from the music of ancient Egypt to the Barber and the Turret music of the desert nomads. The region’s art music has for centuries followed the outline of Arabic and Andalusia classical music: its popular contemporary genres include the Algerian Raja.
With these may be grouped the music of Sudan and of the Horn of Africa, including the music of Reiterate, Ethiopia, Outside and Somalia. Sub-Sahara Africa Main articles: Sub-Sahara African music traditions and Rhythm in Sub-Sahara African music Gee-political map of Africa divided for ethnomusicology purposes, after Alan P. Merriam, 1959. The ethnomusicology pioneer Arthur Morris Jones (1889-1980) observed that the shared rhythmic principles of Sub-Sahara African music traditions constitute one main system. 4] Similarly, master drummer and scholar C. K. Laddered affirms the profound homogeneity of sub-Sahara African rhythmic principles. 5] African traditional music is frequently functional in nature. Performances may be long and often involve the participation of the audience. There are, for example, little different kinds of work songs, songs accompanying childbirth, marriage, hunting and political activities, music to ward off evil spirits and to pay respects to good spirits, the dead and the ancestors.
None of this is performed outside its intended social context and much of it is associated with a particular dance. Some of it, performed by professional musicians, is sacral music or Riemannian and courtly music performed at royal courts. Musicological, Sub- Sahara Africa may be divided into four regions: The eastern region (light green regions on map) includes the music of Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Macaque and Zanzibar as well as the islands of Madagascar, the Seychelles, Mauritius and Common.
Many of these have been influenced by Arabic music and also by the music of India, Indonesia and Polynesia, though the region’s indigenous musical traditions are primarily in the mainstream of the sub-Sahara Niger-Congo-speaking peoples. The southern region (brown region on map) includes the music of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Iambi and Angola. The central region (dark blue region on map) includes the music of Chad, the Central music.
West African music (yellow region on map) includes the music of Senegal and the Gambia, of Guiana and Guiana-Bissau, Sierra Leone and Liberia, of the inland plains of Mali, Niger and Barking Fast, the coastal nations of Cote divorce, Ghana, Togo, Benign, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo as well as islands such as SAA Tome and Principle. Southern, Central and West Africa are similarly in the broad Sub-Sahara musical tradition, but draw their ancillary influences primarily from Western Europe and North America.
Musical instruments The talking drum or ‘tama’, a popular instrument in West Africa. Besides visitation, which uses various techniques such as complex hard Melissa and yodel, a wide array of musical instruments are used. African musical instruments include a wide range of drums, slit gongs, rattles, double bells, in addition to melodic instruments including string instruments, different types of harps and harp-like instruments such as the Okra as well as fiddles), many kinds of xylophone and lampooned such as the umbra, and different types of wind instrument like flutes and trumpets.
Drums used in African traditional music include talking drums, bugaboo and December in West Africa, water drums in Central and West Africa, and the different types of among drums (or enigma) in Central and Southern Africa. Other percussion instruments include many rattles and shakers,